Every time you cite a source in the text of your paper, you are making an "in-text" citation. In-text citations require you to include three pieces of information:
Many times, this information will appear like this: (Smith, 2006. p.4). (However, the same information may appear in other ways, depending on how the writer chooses to integrate the quotation into his or her paper; for instance, According to Smith (2006), "[quote]" (p. 4).) Also, keep in mind that these pieces of information do not exist in every source. To learn more about exceptions with in-text citations, type your question into a search engine, or schedule a session with the LEC.
Every in-text citation must have a corresponding citation in the reference list (or bibliography). The reference list is the final part of any paper. It requires that you put more information about the source than you put in the in-text citation. But because there are many different types of sources, there many different types of reference list citations. You do not need to memorize these; you need to know how to search for the answers when you have questions. The box to the right has a few examples; for more information, search online, or schedule a session with the LEC.
When these two requirements are fully met for each source that you cite in paper, you have avoided plagiarism.
One Work by One Author
In 1999 Johansen reported that many women believe… (no parentheses are needed here, as all
information is present).
Johansen (1999) reported that many women believe…
A report cited that many women believe…(Johansen, 1999).
One Work by Two Authors
Each time a work by two authors is cited, cite both authors. See examples from One Work by One Author for further information in how to cite.
Maude and Harold (2002) claim attending funerals can be beneficial.
In a 2002 study, Maude and Harold concluded that funerals are a necessary part of the grieving process.
One Work by Three, Four, or Five Authors
For the first text citation of a work by three to five authors cite all authors. For all subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. If the work is cited more than once within the same paragraph, omit the year after the first citation.
Lennon, McCartney, Starr, and Harrison (1969) noted in their research…
2nd Citation (and further citations):
Lennon et al. (1969) provided evidence that…
2nd Citation in same paragraph:
Lennon et al. found that…
One Work by Six or More Authors
If a work you are citing has six or more authors, give only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.
Authors with the Same Surname
If you have two works with the first authors having the same surname, include the first author’s initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication differs.
Corporations, Associations, Government Agencies, and Other Groups as Authors
Names of group authors are always spelled out in the first citation. The name should appear in the first text citation as it does in the reference citation. However, in following citations, they are sometimes abbreviated and sometimes not. How to decide: You need to give enough information in the text citation for someone to find the reference list citation.
Reference List Name: National Institute of Mental Health. (1999).
First Text Citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999)
Following Text Citations: (NIMH, 1999)
Works with No Author
For a work with no author, cite the first few words of the reference list citation and the year.
Article Example: The findings demonstrate how … (“New Findings,” 2001).
Book Example: In the book Dating of Beowulf (1981) it is stated that …
Referring to Specific Parts of a Source
When citing a specific part of a source, include the appropriate information such as:
When quoting, always include the page number.
Example 1: Kinsey stated, “We are recorders and reporters of the facts…” (1953, p. 5).
Example 2: Discussing female sexuality, the author proclaims… (Kinsey, 1953, chap. 9).
Referring to Specific Parts of a Source – Electronic Documents without Page Numbers
For electronic documents that do not have page numbers (such as an article written in HTML that appears as one long page on the screen), give the paragraph number to indicate what part of the document you are referring to. Precede the paragraph number with the abbreviation para. Also include section names where appropriate.
Example 1: As Friday stated, “ff” (1984, para. 3).
Example 2: When explaining the idea of jealousy … (Friday, 1984, Introduction section).
Example 3: In her scandalous 1984 publication, Friday claims that dreams are never taboo (Introduction
section, para. 4).
Include entire URL in the your parenthetical citation in the body of your paper. A URL is the internet address where the information can be found. This is in the navigation bar at the top of the screen. A standard URL begins "http://". List the site on your Reference page.
Example 1: Research on the Mozart Effect has generated an institute with a Web site providing links to research studies (http://www.mindinst.org).
Example 2: The MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia allows users to browse for topics and find information on a variety of health topics and medical procedures (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html).